memory for life
by Gerald Epling
Perhaps, you have heard of mindfulness meditation? It is the practice of meditation that is focused on keeping the mind centered on what is happening here and now in the present time. Mindful meditation aims at enhancing the ability of an individual to observe what is going on from a perspective of relaxed awareness.
Mindful meditation is an important part of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), which has reportedly helped people with chronic pain, hypertension, heart disease, and anxiety. Don’t get lost in the acronyms here, but notice that the next therapy is used for depression and is called Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). MBCT is derived from the stress reduction therapy, MBSR. MBCT helps people who have experienced depression avoid relapsing into depression again.
Having a tool that helps prevent a relapse begs the question, “Why?” Why does this mindfulness based therapy help keep depression away? One aspect of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy is education. Cognitive psychological education is helpful in understanding how the mind works. But is it necessary to combine mindfulness meditation with cognitive psychological education for MBCT to work?
In order to better understand Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in preventing a relapse of major depression, twenty-one authors set out to tease apart the contribution of Cognitive Psychological Education to MBCT? Here is how they did it.
227 experiment participants were divided into three different groups. Everyone who participated in the study received Treatment As Usual (TAU) for depression. What varied was the contrast of standard Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with the cognitive psychological education part of MBCT. This was essentially cognitive psychological education – without the additional elements of MBCT, such as meditation.
Participants received one of the following three treatments:
- TAU plus Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy
- TAU plus Cognitive Psychological Education
In the discussion section of the study, “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Preventing Relapse in Recurrent Depression: A Randomized Dismantling Trial,” the authors wrote,
“… this study revealed no significant general risk reduction in those allocated to MBCT compared with TAU or CPE.”
When the results were analyzed, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the treatment in the three groups. However, follow-up analysis has shown an advantage for MBCT over TAU for participants who had childhood trauma in their background.
Details of this study are available on-line by following the link to the article under the heading “Relevant Reading” at the end of this article.
What does this mean? Is it useful for someone in everyday life?
The results showed an application of two things we all know something about, education and meditation. Education has a long history of providing satisfaction with learning how the world works. Cognitive psychological education helps people understand the mind within them and the mindsets of people around them. Beyond just gaining an understanding that comes with relaxed awareness, we need to go further and use our ability to understand so that we can help promote a healthy environment wherever we go.
by Gerald Epling
If you were to ask a group of prisoners how they feel after a 10 week course of yoga, they would probably say, “Better, thank you very much.” This is what a group of researchers found when they set out to discover what Yoga could do for inmates.
Participants in the study reported …
1. An increased sense of well-being.
2. Lower levels of perceived stress.
3. An overall reduction in psychological distress.
This reduction in psychological distress is interesting because the prisoners all have one thing in common – the stress of being in prison.
In addition to the three benefits already identified, there were improvements in executive functioning and impulse control, which leads to less impulsive behavior, but not necessarily less aggressive behavior.
Of the 177 people who were recruited for the study, 116 finished all ten weeks of yoga class and were evaluated for changes in mental health. The drop-out rate along the way is not unusual for a psychological study. Typically, people are free to participate or not. They can start, and then drop out at any time; for any reason. If people have an adverse reaction to the yoga classes, they can push away from the experience.
The drop-out rate leaves some open questions about the 30% who weren’t evaluated. Why did some stop going to yoga class? Why did 51 participants attend all ten weeks of class and then choose not to be evaluated? Did they get busy, or were they just bored? We don’t know the answers to these questions.